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    Discussion in 'The main mechanical design forum' started by GoodCat, Feb 13, 2019.

    1. GoodCat

      GoodCat Well-Known Member EngineeringClicks Expert

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      1. The use of additive technology in the manufacture of parts of spacecraft.

      3D printing is actively used in the aerospace industry for the manufacture of prototypes, engine parts and accessories. Its use allows the manufacturer to reduce the cost of products, improve their performance, as well as significantly reduce the time of manufacture of individual products. One way or another, all large companies involved in aerospace manufacturing are turning to additive technologies.


      In general, engine parts are produced using 3D printing. So, the American company Aerojet Rocketdyne has signed a contract for 1.6 billion dollars for the production of the RS-25 rocket engine, some of the parts for which will be manufactured on a 3D printer. Production of one piece with traditional methods could take half a year - 3D printing allowed Aerojet Rocketdyne to reduce the time and costs, and significantly speed up the process of prototyping. In addition, the company successfully applies additive technologies in other projects.

      Another American company, Rocket Lab, began building the first orbital launch station in New Zealand. From there it is planned to launch the world's first rocket, the oxygen-hydrocarbon engine of which is fully printed on a 3D printer.

      The list would be incomplete without a businessman and designer Ilona Mask. His company, SpaceX, carried out successful tests of SuperDraco engines printed on a 3D printer, which will be used in the Dragon spacecraft, and also works on the Raptor Rocket thrust propulsion system.

      Other industrial giants did not stop at the engines. Blue Origin has used more than 400 parts printed on a 3D printer as part of the New Sheppard first flight in June 2015.

      And Boeing has contracted Oxford Performance Materials, a leading specialist in additive manufacturing, to manufacture 600 parts printed on a 3D printer for the new Starliner space taxis.

      Additive technologies are also used in promising projects of the near future. NASA uses advanced methods in preparing the Martian mission: 3D printing is already used to create prototypes, to manufacture parts in space, and even to make engine components for the future ship that will go to Mars.

      The aerospace industry of Russia is also starting to introduce 3D printing. For these purposes, the Roscosmos corporation received a unique domestic 3D-printer “Router 3131” with a large printing field. He will create elements of spacecraft.
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      2. The use of 3D printing in the production of satellites and devices.

      Another direction in the aerospace industry, which we decided to consider separately, is additive technologies in the production of satellites. Unlike a rocket, the cost of a satellite is significantly lower, but it can also be reduced by drawing attention to innovative technologies.

      That is what the aerospace giant Boeing did, starting to use 3D printing for the production of modular satellites. Now one unit costs, on average, $ 150 million - this price is due not only to the high-tech component, but also to the substantial cost of labor involved in production. When using 3D-printers, the cost and timing of the production of satellites is significantly reduced.

      Small startups and research projects have more modest tasks, but 3D printing helps them. A group of researchers from Northwestern Nazarene University in Idaho is awaiting the launch of its MakerSat satellite, the first in the state, printed on a 3D printer. The size of the apparatus is only 10x10x11.35 cm, and it was created from available polymers for 3D printing (ABS, ULTEM and nylon).
      The developer of high-performance satellites Millennium Space Systems recently announced the completion of work on the pre-production model of the ALTAIR series, which is now being prepared for launch into space. New technologies used in the construction of the satellite will make possible new space missions. For example, 3D printing will save on the cost of sending parts into space and reduce the time needed to prepare and conduct missions.

      Distinguished and Russian scientists. In 2016, the Tomsk Polytechnic University developed a small satellite, Tomsk-TPU-120. When creating the apparatus, scientists and students of the Tomsk Polytechnic University used additive technologies - the frame and most of the components were printed on a 3D printer. On March 31, 2016, the 3D satellite left Earth and settled in orbit.


      "Juno" flew further away. NASA space station with the same name in the summer of 2016 entered the orbit of Jupiter. This event is also important for 3D printing, since Juno became the first spacecraft with details printed on a 3D printer - the titanium waveguide elements manufactured by Lockheed Martin.
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      3. Space 3D-printers.
      Astronauts in orbit often cannot provide themselves with everything they need and have to wait for the cargo that arrives at the International Space Station (ISS) during scheduled flights. Unfortunately, during this time the crew is not insured against accidents or breakdowns of important systems. Experiments on 3D printing in space offer the potential to print the necessary parts if any parts fail in space. This is very important for future flights. Mars and other planets: for a long time, the colonists will not be able to get help from Earth. Therefore, in the forthcoming expeditions it is extremely important to use all the available possibilities for the manufacture of products on board ships and space stations.

      On the ISS, such experiments have been conducted since 2014. That's when the 3D printer Zero G made by Made in Space was delivered to the US segment of the station. The first print took place on November 24, 2014 and marked a new era in the development of 3D technology. The printed object was a part of the printer itself, the front panel of the printhead, which symbolizes the ability to print a 3D printer on a 3D printer in space once. In 2016, another Made in Space printer, called Additive Manufacturing Facility (AMF), was delivered to the ISS.

      From now on, tests of printing on the ISS occur regularly. One of the last ideas was the innovative plan of Canadian companies 3D4MD, which involved printing medical equipment on the ISS, for example, tires or surgical instruments. To create such devices as individual tires with broken fingers, 3D4MD developers could use, for example, measurements taken during the training of space suits, and create a model on Earth. Then the 3D model can be sent to the ISS, where the tire will be printed on the 3D printer.

      Roscosmos is also developing a similar project. An experiment called “3D printing” should confirm the possibility of using a 3D printer in the absence of gravity. This device was created within the walls of the Tomsk Polytechnic Institute and agreed with the engineers of RSC Energia. The printer will go to the ISS in 2018.

      Not being able to conduct experiments in space, other powers organize experiments on the ground. A Chinese development team recently conducted successful tests of a first 3D printer designed for zero gravity. Many complex tests were carried out in the French city of Bordeaux. 3.jpg

      4. 3D-bioprinting in space.
      It is known that in open space there is electromagnetic and radiation, which has a detrimental effect on biological tissues. In order for the astronaut to bear all the hardships of the flight, protection of the ship alone is not enough - you need to think about quality medical care. And if it does not help, then it will completely replace any organs.

      That is why the Russian United Rocket and Space Corporation (ORKK) agreed on an experiment on the use of 3D-biopener at the International Space Station (ISS). Its developer was the Russian laboratory 3D Bioprinting Solutions, specializing in bioprinting technology. Scientists hope that the magnetic bioprinter will allow to create tissues and organs in space. It is expected that the device will be delivered to the ISS by 2018.
       
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    3. GoodCat

      GoodCat Well-Known Member EngineeringClicks Expert

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      5. Erection of structures using construction 3D-printing.
      One of the most basic problems in the construction of buildings on extraterrestrial objects is the limited amount or absence of building material. The only available raw materials that do not need to be transported from our planet are local geological rocks. It is not surprising that scientists solve the problem of their use in the construction of buildings.

      So, engineers from Northwestern University USA found a way to use quality materials in situations where resources are limited. We are talking about the process of additive production from special materials that imitate the lunar and Martian regolith. These are durable and elastic materials that are produced using powdered substances that resemble rocks from the surface of the Moon and Mars.

      It is likely that this technology will be used in the colonization of Mars. Due to the extreme temperatures and high radiation on the surface of the “red planet”, the first colonizers will need reliable shelters. NASA experts suggest using a 3D print “dome” of ice from the surface of Mars, covered with a transparent membrane of PTFE-40. One of the main advantages of a water-based home is that such walls protect against cosmic radiation, but do not interfere with the penetration of light — this creates some comfort. In addition, the selection of materials took into account other criteria - their strength and reliability, the ability to withstand the difficult conditions of Mars.

      The European Space Agency (ESA) is developing in the same direction and has already achieved some results. Scientists from the Austrian University of Applied Sciences in Wiener Neustadt managed to print on a 3D printer a small needle and a corner wall from JSC-Mars-1A, imitating the Martian soil.

      In addition to serious research, there are quite unexpected projects. So, experts from the ESA mentioned by us thought about saving the souls of the first lunar colonists and planned to build a temple on the moon using 3D printing. This building with the poetic name of the Temple of Eternal Light will be located in the center of the residential complex for the first lunar settlers and combine a prayer place and an observatory. Designers believe that the temples on the moon will revive the lost connection of humanity with the cosmos.

      However, according to Vyacheslav Bobin, the head of the Center for the Study of Natural Substances at the Institute for Integrated Development of the Mineral Resources of the Russian Academy of Sciences, building settlements on the Moon is not such a fantastic perspective as you might have thought. A new Russian moon exploration program can provide the conditions for building a base using 3D printing. If Russian researchers succeed in identifying a suitable place for a colony, Bobin believes that later a 3D printer can be used to construct buildings.
       

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